# Phantom Types and Generalized Algebraic Data Types

## Phantom Types

A phantom type is a parameterized type in the left hand side type constructor which does not get used in the in the right hand side data constructor. The type has no values associated with it.

`Length`

is a phantom type because `a`

does not appear on the right hand side. It helps track a type.

```
data Inch
data Centimeter
inchesToCentimeters :: Length Inch -> Length Centimeter
inchesToCentimeters (Length in) = Distance (2.54 * in)
centimetersToInches :: Length Centimeter -> Length Inch
centimetersToInches (Length cm) = Length (cm / 2.54)
```

## Data Kinds

```
{-# LANGUAGE DataKinds #-}
{-# LANGUAGE GeneralizedNewtypeDeriving #-}
{-# LANGUAGE KindSignatures #-}
data LengthUnit = Inch | Centimeter
-- restrict the type of a polymorphic variable
newtype Length (a :: LengthUnit) = Distance Double
deriving (Num, Show)
inchesToCentimeters :: Length 'Inch -> Length 'Centimeter
inchesToCentimeters (Length in) = Distance (2.54 * in)
centimetersToInches :: Length 'Centimeter -> Length 'Inch
centimetersToInches (Length cm) = Length (cm / 2.54)
```

## Generalized Algebraic Data Types

weak approximations of inductive families from dependently typed languages

A `data`

constructor allows us to define a type constructor on the left hand side and a data (value) constructor on the right hand side. Generalized Algebraic Data Types (GADTs) allow us to explicitly write down the type signatures of data constructors. In GADTs, the return type of the data constructor does not have to match the type constructor.

We can expand on our example from above:

```
{-# LANGUAGE GADTs #-}
data Inch
data Centimeter
data Length a where
InchLength :: Double -> Distance Inch
CentimeterLength :: Double -> Distance Centimeter
deriving instance Show (Distance a)
inchesToCentimeters :: Length Inch -> Length Centimeter
inchesToCentimeters (Length in) = Distance (2.54 * in)
centimetersToInches :: Length Centimeter -> Length Inch
centimetersToInches (Length cm) = Length (cm / 2.54)
```

Here is another motivating example from the GHC Users Guide:

```
data Term a where
Lit :: Int -> Term Int
Succ :: Term Int -> Term Int
IsZero :: Term Int -> Term Bool
If :: Term Bool -> Term a -> Term a -> Term a
Pair :: Term a -> Term b -> Term (a,b)
```

We can then pattern match on all of the constructors of `Term`

.

```
eval :: Term a -> a
eval (Lit i) = i
eval (Succ t) = 1 + eval t
eval (IsZero t) = eval t == 0
eval (If b e1 e2) = if eval b then eval e1 else eval e2
eval (Pair e1 e2) = (eval e1, eval e2)
```

GADTs allow type refinement. Type `a`

is refined to `Int`

in the case of the `Lit`

constructor because of the signature in the GADT definition `Lit :: Int -> Term Int`

.